Careers in engineering involve the creative application of scientific principles to solving human problems. Electrical engineering began with Allesandro Volta's and Michael Faraday's discoveries and mechanical engineering began with James Watt's invention. A job in computer science is an engineering job and such careers started in the early 1940s when the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was built for the U. S. Army. Computer science began with the work of Alan Turing, Kurt Gödel, and John von Neumann on algorithm theory (step-by-step procedures for solving a problem) and mathematical logic. Jobs in information technology focus attention on processing and transmitting information and only involve computer science because computers are used. A career in computer science, as opposed to a career in information technology, means understanding information processing and transformation.
A computer science engineer decides on the best types of programming languages, algorithms, and data structures (lists, arrays, records, stacks, queues, and trees) to use for a particular application. A career in computer science as a software engineer requires developing accurate and robust computer programs. A computer's memory limitation is one of many factors a computer science engineer needs to consider. Jobs in computer science include making operating systems, which control the overall functioning of a computer, easier to use and more efficient.
A computer science career can focus on computer architecture, which is the design and analysis of new computer systems. Computer science jobs in this area involve improving computers by increasing their speed, storage capacity, and reliability. Software and hardware models are developed that will ultimately result in new computers. Computer science careers in this sub-field often focus on particular tasks, such as image and signal processing or controlling mechanical systems (robotics).
Computer science jobs frequently involve research in artificial intelligence, which attempts to mimic human intelligence to improve our understanding of human learning, inference, cognition, and problem solving.
There are also many computer science careers available in robotics, which is the design and development of computer controlled mechanical devices. Such devices range from toys to completely automated factory assembly lines. Increasing the dexterity and adaptability of robots is a research area closely aligned with artificial intelligence.
Careers in computer science can also focus on research of the interface between humans and computers. Designing a better keyboard for handicapped individuals is an example of a job in computer science that focuses on the human-computer interface. Since there are many different computer applications and many different kinds of users, the development of input and output devices provides many computer science career opportunities. Other jobs in computer science are related to computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, computer-human interaction, computer graphics, and numerical and symbolic computation.
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